By J. Carr

ISBN-10: 0387905774

ISBN-13: 9780387905778

Those notes are in keeping with a sequence of lectures given within the Lefschetz heart for Dynamical structures within the department of utilized arithmetic at Brown collage in the course of the educational yr 1978-79. the aim of the lectures used to be to provide an creation to the purposes of centre manifold idea to differential equations. many of the fabric is gifted in a casual model, via labored examples within the desire that this clarifies using centre manifold idea. the most program of centre manifold conception given in those notes is to dynamic bifurcation idea. Dynamic bifurcation idea is anxious with topological alterations within the nature of the recommendations of differential equations as para meters are assorted. Such an instance is the construction of periodic orbits from an equilibrium element as a parameter crosses a serious worth. In convinced conditions, the appliance of centre manifold thought reduces the measurement of the process below research. during this admire the centre manifold conception performs an identical function for dynamic difficulties because the Liapunov-Schmitt strategy performs for the research of static recommendations. Our use of centre manifold concept in bifurcation difficulties follows that of Ruelle and Takens [57) and of Marsden and McCracken [51).

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**Example text**

8) oS. 9) where y = r + 2M(r)k(g). 9), i f provided £ and r are small enough so that z E Y, a - qy > o. 28 2. 6. Properties of Centre Manifolds K and this completes the proof of the theorem. (1) manifold. 1) does not have a unique centre For example, the system x = -x 3 , two parameter family of centre manifolds y y= = -y, has the h(x,c ,c 2) l where c 1 -2 l exp (- 2" x ), 0 1 -2 c 2 exp( - 2" x ), However, if hI and g are 0 < o. q > 1. (2) [441. 1) does not have an analytic centre manifold (see exercise (1)).

1) exist for fixed The sign of 8 E. will determine the direction of bifurcation and the stability of the periodic orbits, among other things. From now on we assume (Hl)-(H3). 4. 58 BIFURCATIONS WITH TWO PARAMETERS Level Curves of Figure 1 2 1 Bifurcation Set for the Case a < 0, e < o. Figure 2 The main results are given in Figures 2-5. Sections 3-8 of this chapter show how we obtain these pictures.

2) has an invariant manifold fined for -1 Theorem 4. where < Y < f,g O. 3) and A,B are as in Theorem 1. C2 with f(O,O,O) 0, g(O,O,O) Then there is a Ih(x,E) I Ixl = h(y,E) sufficiently small. Ax + Ef(x,y, E) x E mn, y E mm m E x' invariant manifold G m, say, and v Consider the system also that Let y F -1, then 6 h(x,E), C > 0 Suppose = O. 3) has an Ixl < m, lEI < 0, with is a constant which depends on g. 0 be a if ex> function with C Ixl > m + 1. Define 1jI(x) F =1 and 32 2. F(x,y,E) = e:f(x1jJ(X),y,E), G(X,y,E) PROOFS OF THEOREMS Eg(X1jJ(X),y,E).

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